Exceptionally high mortality of adult female salmon: a large-scale pattern and a conservation concern
In recent decades, the relative proportion of female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) on spawning grounds of several British Columbia populations has declined. Coincident with the decline has been large changes to oceanic, estuarine and river migration environments. Over the past 30 years, numerous telemetry tracking and laboratory studies have examined mortality of adult Fraser River sockeye salmon during ocean and freshwater migrations. We reviewed 19 studies that provided 40 situations where male and female mortality could be directly compared. Female mortality averaged 2.1 times greater than males, and up to 8-fold higher. High female mortality was also evident in migrating coho salmon (O. kisutch) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and for sockeye salmon in other systems. Female mortality was highest when migration conditions were challenging (e.g. high / turbulent flows, high temperatures, confinement, or handling), and towards end of river migration. We review mechanisms for differential mortality, including energy exhaustion, cardiac performance, physiological stress, and immune factors. Female-specific mortality will become even more pronounced in coming years as ocean and riverine conditions continue to change.
The various ways that anadromous salmonids use lake habitats to complete their life history
Small biased body size of salmon fry preyed upon by piscivorous fish in riverine and marine habitats